Comparative study of hardiness among student-athletes and non-athletes


  • Margarita Permiakova Ural Federal University
  • Olga Vindeker Ural Federal University
  • Irina Ershova Ural Federal University
  • Svetlana Pavlova Ural Federal University
  • Natalya Khon Turan University, Almaty, Kazakhstan
  • Irina Dmitrieva Ural Federal University
  • Valeriya Semkina Ural Federal University


Students-athletes, Hardiness, Commitment, Control, Challenge, Gender differences


The article is devoted to analysis of hardiness and its components (commitment, control, challenge) among student-athletes and students who do not go in for sports (Russia). The purpose of this study is to explore the peculiarities of the level and structure of the hardiness of student-athletes in comparison with students who are not involved in sports. We hypothesized that students-athletes are hardier, and the structure of their hardiness is different from student-non-athletes. The study involved 152 participants (62 male and 90 female). The sample consisted of subjects aged from 18 to 27 years (average age was 21.8 ± 4.1 years). Maddy’s “Hardiness Scale” (adapted by Leontiev and Rasskazova, 2006) and structured interview were used. Mathematical data processing was carried out with nonparametric (φ test) and parametric statistics (t-test). Method of Principle Components (Varimax Normalized) was applied in addition. All students have a high level of hardiness. While, the hardiness is higher in student-athletes due to the components of commitment and control. Factor analysis confirmed the presence of a more distinctly differentiated structure of hardiness in student-athletes. Male student-athletes have the highest level of hardiness. Girls who do not engage in sports have the lowest indicates of hardiness. Female student-athletes and young men who do not engage in sports have the same level of hardiness.

Comparative study of hardiness among student-athletes and non-athletes




How to Cite

Margarita Permiakova, Olga Vindeker, Irina Ershova, Svetlana Pavlova, Natalya Khon, Irina Dmitrieva, & Valeriya Semkina. (2020). Comparative study of hardiness among student-athletes and non-athletes. Revista De Psicología Del Deporte (Journal of Sport Psychology), 29(2), 221–229. Retrieved from

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