Emotional states and their relationship to attributions and expectations of self-efficacy in sport

Enrique Cantón Chirivella, Irene Checa Esquiva


The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship among attributions in competition, perception of efficacy therein and emotions experienced. An ad-hoc emotions assessment inventory that contains 48 items with a Likert response system of 0 to 4, depending on the intensity of the emotion experienced, was used. Likewise, the attributions were measured using a closed item that covered these possible response options, using the locus axes of control and stability. Lastly, perceived self-efficacy was assessed using an item with four alternative responses. In both cases, we started out from these variables’ conceptual foundations to construct the items.

The sample consisted in 60 athletes, footballers and karate practitioners with a mean age of 21.87 years old. The results of the competitions perceived as successful showed significant differences in the positive emotions experienced (F = 5.664, p =.002), depending on the attributions made. Regarding efficacy, we found a positive correlation between pleasant emotions and self-efficacy (r =. 402, p =.001) and a negative correlation between high arousal of unpleasant emotions (anger and fear) and self-efficacy (r =-.263, p =.043). All the relationships followed the direction of the conceptual framework of the underpinning motivational theories and also present some lines for the future.

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Copyright (c) 2012 Enrique Cantón Chirivella, Irene Checa Esquiva